Session 2



Every chord has a related scale with which it 'fits' harmonically. This is an important principle for all musicians who wish to develop the art of improvisation. Here are some examples of common related scales and chords.

IONIAN MODE
MAJOR CHORDS
DORIAN MODE
MINOR CHORDS
MIXOLYDIAN MODE
DOMINANT 7th. CHORDS
LOCRIAN MODE
HALF DIMINISHED CHORDS
WHOLE TONE SCALE
DOMINANT 7th. (b5)
PENTATONIC
MAJOR or MINOR (Starting on the third)
BLUES SCALE
DOMINANT 7th.

The Whole Tone scale has the form, T,T,T,T,T,T.

Pentatonic scale has the form, T.-3.T.T.-3. (-3 = A MINOR THIRD)

The Blues scale has the form, -3,T,H,H,-3,T.

Click here to download a Scale Chart which you may use for practice and reference.

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The Cycle of Fifths

Moving clockwise around the diagram from C, the major scales are found by raising the seventh by a semitone. Hence the scale of G major has one sharp (F#). The scale of D major has two sharps (F# & C#) and so on until we reach B major which has 5 sharps.
Moving anticlockwise around the diagram for C we have the so called flat scales. The major scales are found by flattening the fourth of the scale. Hence the major scale of F has one flat (Bb). The major scale of Bb has two flats (Bb and Eb) and so on until we reach Gb which has six flats.
Clearly Gb can be thought of as F# which has six sharps if necessary.
(Further work on the Cycle of Fifths in session 8.)



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Chord Sequences
.

Referring to Session 1, it is possible to play four of the modal scales (Ionian, Phrygian, Mixolydian, Locrian ) simultaneously in the following chord sequence.


 I 
II 
III 
IV 
 V 
VI 
VII

The Roman Numerals denote the 'degree' of the scale and therefore the type of chord used. Hence

I = Cmaj7 = CM7
II = Dmin7 = D-7
III = Emin7 = E-7
IV = Fmaj7 = FM7
V = G7
VI = Amin7 = A-7
VII = B min7(b5) = BÝ

Exercise:- If possible form a group with drums, bass, guitar or piano, trumpet or any other solo instrument. Start with drums playing a six/eight rhythm. Then add the bass, playing one beat in the bar (the root of the chord), Then add guitar or piano playing chords only, then add a solo instrument playing the tune. Then experiment with improvisations, each instrument taking a solo chorus. Make sure that the rhythm remains constant throughout.

When it is mutually agreed that the improvisations have exploited the tune sufficiently, the last chorus can be a return to the tune on the trumpet or other solo instrument.

Here is the tune by the famous Miles Davis.

Learn the tune so that you can play it without the 'dots' and then use the following chords in performance.

G7           G7 G7           G7          
C7 C7 G7 G7
D7#9 Eb7#9     D7#9 G7 G7

For practice routines in preparation for session 3, repeat those for
session 1 and play the related scales of All Blues, following the chord sequence. Commit the chord sequence to memory. Be adventurous with improvisations. Use the mixolydian mode for the first improvisation and then the blues scale. There are no mistakes in jazz, only more or less interesting sounds!




Session 3